似曾相识的感觉(似曾相识的感觉,到底是什么?)

似曾相识的感觉

似曾相识
多数人应该都有过这种体验,理智上明明知道某个人、某件事或某个场景是第一次遇到,但却有似曾相识的感觉。
这种“似曾相识”感,来去不受我们自己控制,经历的时候你会觉得神奇与讶异不已,以为自己受上天眷顾,具有了某种先知先觉的超能力。它来袭时,伴随着一种强烈的真切感和熟悉感,同时也让人感到神秘、诡异和困惑,因此人们会用“第六感”、“前世”等词汇来描绘它,甚至用一些诸如梦境、先知和轮回转世等神秘主义来解释这种现象。

1
“似曾相识”是大脑作怪
“Déjà vu”(似曾相识) is a physiological phenomenon. Scientists have been studying this problem for a long time. As early as 1888, British neurologists found that certain types of epilepsy patients often experienced deja vu during onset. 

“似曾相识”是一种生理现象。科学家们早已经对这个问题进行过长时间的研究。早在1888年,英国神经病学家发现,某些类型的癫痫病人在发病时,经常出现似曾相识感。

At that time, neurologists speculated that deja vu was related to neuronal firing errors(神经元发射失误) in a region of the brain, which happened to be related to human sensory perception and associative memory.

当时的神经病学家推测这种“似曾相识感”与大脑某个区域的神经元发射失误有关,而这个区域恰好与人的感知觉和联想记忆有关。

“The sense of deja vu is just a slight defect in our memory storage process,” which is a common explanation at present. Paul Bloom, professor of psychology at Yale University, once said that “deja vu” was caused by abnormal discharge of hippocampus, which is responsible for memory in the brain, resulting in memory storage location errors. 

“似曾相识感只不过是我们的记忆存储过程中出现了一点小瑕疵,”这是目前比较常见的解释。耶鲁大学心理学教授保罗?布鲁姆曾说,“似曾相识”是因为大脑中负责记忆的海马体放电不正常导致记忆存储位置错误。

According to his explanation, the reason why we feel like we have known each other before is that we have actually seen it in the first few seconds, but the memory of “the first few seconds” is carelessly thrown by the brain into an unknown period of time, not into the period of “the first few seconds”. However, this statement has not yet been confirmed by brain anatomy.

按照他的解释,我们之所以觉得眼前的事物似曾相识,是因为我们真的见过,而且就在前几秒,但是“前几秒”的这个记忆,不小心被大脑扔到不知道哪个时间段里去了,没被放进“前几秒”这个时间段里。不过,这种说法目前尚未经大脑解剖学的证实。

2
熟悉性和回想的不同步
“The asynchrony between familiarity and recall leads to a sense of deja vu,” explains Paul Raeber, professor of psychology at Northwestern University. The current experience has been seen before, which is called “recognition”(再认)in cognitive science, and “recognition”  is divided into recollection (回想)and familiarity (熟悉性). 

“熟悉性和回想的作用不同步导致似曾相识感”,这是美国西北大学心理学教授保罗?雷伯的解释。眼前经历的事曾经见过,这在认知理学上被称为“再认”,“再认”又分回想和熟悉性。

The former can clearly recall the experience at that time, while the latter is only familiar, but not sure the source of familiarity. They are two processes of functional separation and depend on different neurological mechanisms. 

前者能清楚想起当时经历的情境,而后者是仅有熟悉感,但不确定熟悉感的来源 。两者是功能分离的两个过程,且依赖于性质不同的神经机制。

When the nervous mechanism responsible for familiarity is normal, and the nervous mechanism responsible for recall is not normal, there will be a strong sense of familiarity, but can not recall the specific details.

当负责熟悉性的神经机制正常活动,而负责回想的神经机制没有正常活动时,就会产生了强烈的熟悉感,却无法回忆起具体的细节内容。

3
错误的熟悉感
Familiarity errors and bad memories are the most commonly accepted explanations. Annie Cliley, a professor of cognitive psychology at Colorado State University, believes that when a scene, light, smell or sound awakens a matching fragment of similar memory, false familiarity produces a “sense of deja vu”.

熟悉感错误和坏记忆捣乱,这是目前得到较为普遍认可的一种解释。科罗拉多州立大学认知心理学教授安妮?克利里认为,当场景、光线、气味或声音,唤醒某一段匹配的相似记忆碎片时,错误的熟悉感会产生“似曾相识感”。

Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, believes that “deja vu” implies a repressed subconscious desire, which will not be perceived by the conscious, but will leave a sense of familiarity.

精神分析的创始人弗洛伊德认为,“似曾相识”暗示着被压抑的潜意识欲望,它不会被意识觉察,但会留下熟悉感。

4
相似的外部环境
以上多种科学解释都试图从人本身找答案,但是也有人认为,越来越相似的外部环境,制造了越来越多似曾相识的场景。社会学家曼纽尔?卡斯特认为,我们社会里营造的生活方式,设计的空间建筑,有超越每个地域历史特殊性的趋势。例如全世界国际旅馆的装饰都很相似,从房间设计到毛巾的颜色,创造出一种内部世界的熟悉感,让人分不出自己在何处。高楼、地铁站、高铁站等千篇一律,无论走到哪个城市,你都能找到“熟悉感”,唤醒相似的记忆。日益均质化的生活方式超越一切习俗和文化??

Although all the people will have the subjective experience of “deja vu”, it does not mean that “deja vu” will happen to everyone at the same frequency.

尽管所有的人都会出现“似曾相识”的主观体验,但并不意味着“似曾相识”感在每个人身上发生的频率都是一样的。

“In people’s teens and twenties, the occurrence of deja vu is the most frequent, and its frequency gradually decreases with age, the more tired it is, the more likely it will occur. 

“在人们处于十几二十几岁的时候似曾相识感的发生最为频繁,其频率随着年龄增长而逐渐减弱,越是疲惫时越可能出现。

Some studies have also pointed out that those who love traveling, often dreaming, reading or watching movies experience “deja vu” more often, probably because they have seen different scenes and are more likely to encounter familiar scenes.

也有研究指出,那些爱旅行、经常做梦、阅读或者喜欢看电影的人,体会到“似曾相识感”的次数较多,可能是因为这些人见过各种不同的场景,遇到熟悉的场景的概率较大。





Q:那当我们出现这种现象的时候要去看医生吗?
A:完全没有必要,偶尔的出现只是健康的大脑运行中出现的一点小瑕疵而已。如果频繁出现,那可能就要去看医生了。

END
编辑:张冬婷&董贝(苏州大学护理学院2018级研究生)
来源:中国知网


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